Shusterman's Immigration Update
Volume Fourteen, Number Five
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SHUSTERMAN’S IMMIGRATION UPDATE is the Web’s most popular e-mail newsletter regarding U.S. immigration laws and procedures with over 58,000 subscribers located in more than 150 countries. It is written by a former INS Trial Attorney (1976-82) with over 30 years of experience practicing immigration law.
Published by the Law Offices of Carl Shusterman, 600 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1550, Los Angeles, California, 90017. Phone: (213) 623-4592 x0
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Disclaimer: This newsletter is not intended to establish an attorney-client relationship. All information contained in this newsletter is generalized. Any reliance on information contained herein is taken at your own risk.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
- Legislation: Obama to Push Immigration Reform This Year
- H-1Bs: Let the Market Decide the Number of Working Visas
- Schedule of Shusterman’s Upcoming Immigration Law Seminars
- Physicians – Expansion of Conrad 30 Program to Cover H-1Bs?
- Success Story: Erroneous I-140 Denial is Overturned
- Immigration Trivia Quiz: Who’s Cooking in the Kitchen?
- Ask Mr. Shusterman: EB-3 Visas Become Unavailable
- Official Immigration Government Processing Times
- How to Select the Right Immigration Attorney for You!
- Winner of April 2009 Immigration Trivia Quiz
- Army- In our March 2009 newsletter, one of our topics was entitled “Army Recruits Persons Holding Temporary Visas”. See
Frankly, we did not get a lot of response. Apparently, the Army did. In fact, we were informed that our article generated so much traffic that some of the Army’s top brass were asking “What is Shusterman.com?”
Much to our surprise, on April 24, we received a Certificate of Appreciation from the U.S. Army signed by Lt. General Benjamin C. Freakley which states as follows:
“U.S. Army Accessions Command Certificate of Appreciation is presented to Mr. Carl Shusterman in recognition of your outstanding contributions to the United States Army Accessions Command. Your personal efforts and support of the United States Army Accessions Vital to the National Interest Pilot Program has resulted in one of the most successful programs the Army has unveiled in recent history. Your support has made a direct impact on the overall success and readiness of the Army to accomplish its mission. Thank you for your great work and dedication. Many Thanks!”
We are truly humbled by this honor. See
- Blog- Recently, we started a weekly blog entitled “Nation of Immigrants”. April entries include the following topics:April 14: Let the Market Decide the Number of Working VisasApril 20: Physicians to Benefit from H-1B SlowdownApril 29: H-1B Advice for Students and Their Employers
To read our blog, which deals with current immigration issues, or to receive a free subscription, see
We welcome your comments!
- Burundi TPS- USCIS announced that temporary protected status for certain nationals of Burundi ended on May 2. See
- California Service Center (USCIS) – The CSC has terminated operation of the Division XII case inquiry system, and an automated reply to any inquiry sent to a Division XII mailbox directs inquiries to the National Customer Service Center (NCSC) at 1-800-375-5283. The CSC and USCIS Headquarters have not been able to clarify what processes are to be used after an unsuccessful NCSC inquiry attempt.
- Computer Professionals- Everyday, for the past seven years, we search the online computer magazines and link to the most important immigration developments related to computer professionals. See our “Immigration for Computer Professionals” page at
- E-Verify Delayed- On April 17, the mandatory E-Verify program for federal contractors and subcontractors was delayed again, this time until June 30, 2009. See
- Exchange Visitor Skills List Updated- Persons present in the U.S. in J status whose countries list their occupations on the Exchange Visitor Skills List are subject to the two- year home residency requirement. On April 30, the State Department updated the list, effective June 28, 2009. To view the new list, see our “State Department Immigration Resources” page at
or our “Exchange Visitors (J-1) and Waivers” page at
- iCert Begins- The Labor Department’s iCert Visa Portal began accepting Labor Condition Applications (LCAs) on April 15. Starting on May 15, LCAs must be filed through iCert. We link to the announcement of the new iCert system, the iCert External User’s Guide and the iCert LCA Module External User’s Guide from our “PERM Resources” page at
- Miguel Pérez- Dr. Miguel A. Pérez, a health science professor at California State University, Fresno, has won the 2009 American Association for Health Education (AAHE) Professional Service to Health Education award. See
Some 20 years ago, Miguel came into our office with a deportation order in his hand. Fortunately, we were able to prevent him from being deported. See “Honor Student Beats Deportation” at
and a video about Miguel’s story at
We are very proud of Dr. Miguel Pérez!
- National Public Radio- Everyday, for the past five years, we link to the most important stories in the immigration world from our “NPR” page. See
- Replacement Green Cards- Beginning on April 27, applicants for replacement green cards were required to submit their Form I-90 and supporting documentation to the USCIS Lockbox facility in Phoenix for initial processing. For more information, see the USCIS website at
- USCIS Director to be Nominated- On April 30, DHS Secretary Napolitano announced that it was President Obama’s intention to nominate Alejandro Mayorkas as the next Director of the USCIS. We link to the press release from our “USCIS” page at
- Visa Bulletin- The May 2009 Visa Bulletin is a disaster for persons who are professionals, skilled, and unskilled workers in the EB-3 category. The system has run out of numbers for the rest of the fiscal year (May 1 – September 30, 2009). To view the May 2009 Visa Bulletin, see our “Visa Bulletin” page at
- VisaScreen Renewals- Before a foreign-born healthcare professional may be admitted to the U.S., he or she must possess a healthcare certification (called the “VisaScreen” by CGFNS) stating the person’s education, training, experience, licensing, and English-language ability satisfy U.S. standards. Surprisingly, this is true even if the foreign national is educated in the U.S. The certification is valid for five years. If it takes over five years for the person to achieve permanent residence in the U.S., the certification must be renewed. We link to the renewal procedures from our “Licensing and VisaScreen” page at
and from our “Allied Health Professionals” page at
http://shusterman.com/healthcareprofessionalsusimmigration.html#3 (Occupational Therapist)
- Worksite Enforcement Strategy- ICE’s enforcement strategy has long suffered from a lack of focus. Raiding factories and criminally prosecuting undocumented workers for such offenses as “identity theft” may generate headlines, but it fails to get at the heart of the problem. On April 30, ICE issued a memo entitled “Fact Sheet: Worksite Enforcement Strategy”. However, while this new policy may be a step in the right direction, any enforcment-only approach is doomed to failure. According to a New York Times editorial, the ICE raids resulted in the arrests of just 6,000 undocumented immigrants out of 12 million in the U.S. The newspaper described the ICE raids as follows: “They destroyed families, tearing parents and grandparents from children, many of them citizens. The fear they caused went viral in immigrant communities, driving workers further into the arms of abusive employers while bringing us no closer to a working immigration system.”We link to the complete text of the ICE memo at
- YouTube “How to” Immigration Videos- Over 20,000 persons have viewed one or more of our YouTube videos on immigration. One of our recent videos, “Green Cards through Marriage”, has been viewed over 9,000 times. We uploaded two additional videos regarding how to obtain permanent residence in the U.S.: (1) Obtaining Permanent Residence through Adjustment of Status and (2) Obtaining a Green Card using Section 245(i). We also “embedded” all 20 of our videos into our website. We will film more YouTube videos in May and June. Obtain free information about how you may qualify for immigration benefits by viewing our videos at
On April 9, the New York Times ran a front page story which stated that the Obama Administration planned to take on the issue of immigration reform this year. See
Then, on April 14, the two major labor federations in the U.S., the AFL-CIO and Change to Win, jointly endorsed comprehensive immigration reform. We link to their joint statement from our “Immigration Legislation” page at
The President plans to make a major speech about immigration in May. Over the summer, the Administration will work with Congressional leaders on immigration legislation which may be introduced as early as this fall.
On April 30, the Senate Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and Border Security held a legislative hearing entitled “Comprehensive Immigration Reform in 2009, Can We Do It and How?” We link to the WebCast of the hearing as well as to the written testimony of the witnesses from our “United States Senate” page at
On May 2, Senator Charles Schumer (D-NY), the Chairman of the Subcommittee stated, “I believe that this year, we can pass comprehensive, strong, fair immigration reform.”
We expect that whatever legislation emerges will include a “path to citizenship” for the undocumented coupled with strict enforcement measures, perhaps a mandatory e-verify requirement for employers.
As a former INS attorney (1976-82) who has been in private practice for 27 years, allow me to offer some suggestions for reforming the “legal immigration” system:
- Allow spouses and minor, unmarried children of lawful permanent residents to be considered “immediate relatives”;
- Recapture all unused employment-based visa numbers, and allow unused EB numbers to be carried forward;
- Raise country quotas for family-based immigrants and eliminate them for employment-based immigrants;
- Allow derivative beneficiaries of immediate relatives to immigrate to the U.S.;
- Create a category for Schedule A (shortage occupation) immigrants, and exempt their spouses and children from numerical caps;
- Allow healthcare professionals who agree to practice in a medically underserved area for a certain amount of time to be eligible for H-1B cap-exempt status and to be exempt from EB quotas;
- Allow same-sex partners to immigrate as “immediate relatives”;
- Extend section 245(i);
- Allow persons subject to the inadmissibility bars for unlawful presence to obtain waivers by paying an appropriate fine;
- Reduce filing fees for naturalization by at least 50%;
- Remove the bar to lawful permanent residence for persons who have made a false claim to citizenship. Instead, impose an appropriate fine;
- Use these fines to hire more USCIS examiners in order to expedite the work flow;
- Mandate that applications and petitions for immigration benefits must be adjudicated within 180 days of filing;
- Allow persons who were illegally denied immigration benefits to challenge such denials in Federal Court.
Back in 1982, when I left the INS to enter private practice, the number of H-1 visas was unlimited. All professionals, including registered nurses, were eligible for H-1 visas. Also, there was no maximum duration for H-1s. U.S. employers could petition for H-1 workers all year long, yet the program did not generate the amount of controversy that it does today. It was a market-based system which allowed U.S. employers to fill jobs in a global economy, plain and simple.
The Immigration Act of 1990 ushered in the present era of government control of “H-1B” temporary visas. For the first time, a numerical cap (65,000) was imposed along with a maximum duration of stay (6 years). Registered nurses were banished from the category.
All of this has proven to be a nightmare. Every few years since 1990, Congress has had to step in to change the numerical cap (to 115,000, then to 195,000, then back to 65,000 by default), to create exemptions to the cap, establish a “cap-dependent” category and to allow persons to exceed the six-year maximum under certain circumstances. The result is a crazy-quilt system that only a lawyer could love. Employers don’t understand the nuances of the law and the many memos interpreting it. Neither do the visa holders. Often, the agency itself misinterprets the law.
In my opinion, the complexity of the law serves to facilitate abuses by a few unscrupulous employers. Yet, there are those in Congress who seek to make the law even more complex! See
Before Congress acts, it may be wise to examine what happened this year in an economy mired in recession. Employers submitted only 42,000 regular cap petitions in the first week of availability compared with over 163,000 petitions submitted during the same period last year. This despite the fact that many students working using Optional Practical Training (OPT) who lost out in the “H-1B Lottery” last year were petitioned again this year. Also, new USCIS restrictions on “cap-exempt” petitions forced many employers to submit “cap-subject” petitions this year. See
The main lesson to be learned is that the market worked. Given the large number of jobs lost in the U.S. economy, employers submitted a small fraction of the number of petitions submitted last year. Contrary to what critics of the program maintain, the cost of employing an H-1B worker exceeds that of hiring a U.S. worker given attorneys’ fees and government filing fees.
Further, according to Vivek Wadhwa of Harvard Law School, skilled immigrants have fueled our tech boom. Over half of Silicon Valley tech start-ups and a quarter of those nationwide were founded by immigrants from 1995 to 2005. In 2005 alone, these companies generated $52 billion in revenue and employed 450,000 workers – a number greater than the number of H-1B workers in the tech industries over the prior 10 years combined.
Congress should stop trying to micro-manage the program, and return to a simple market-based system. The plain truth is that the overwhelming majority of U.S. employers comply with the law. Those that abuse the law should be stripped of their ability to petition for H-1B workers.
Alas, I fear that my advice may fall on deaf ears. Therefore, employers, H-1B workers and their attorneys, seeking to navigate the current complex system, can search our “H-1B Page” which contains almost 100 links to information about this most-complicated of all temporary working visas at
A new report by the Social Science Research Network entitled “Losing the World’s Best and Brightest: America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs” discusses why the foreign-born scientists and engineers educated in the U.S. are leaving the country in ever-increasing numbers. See
Various organizations have weighed in on the need to increase the number of H-1B visas. See the recent press release of the National Association of International Educators at
Also, see the press release of CompeteAmerica entitled “Highly Educated Workers Will Continue to Drive America’s Innovation Economy” at
- June 3-6th, 2009Las Vegas, NV
American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA)
2009 AILA Annual Conference on Immigration LawTopic: Law Practice ManagementFor more information see
- June 17th, 2009Hospital Association of Southern California
Immigration WebinarRegistration information will be available in the June edition of this newsletter.
On March 18, Senator Kent Conrad (D-ND) and a bipartisan coalition of Senators introduced the “Conrad State 30 Improvement Act” in the Senate (S.728).
If enacted into law, this would make the Conrad 30 program permanent and would provide the first substantial increase in physicians covered by the program in half a dozen years.
Since the beginning of the Conrad program in 1994, it has granted immigration benefits to foreign-born physicians who completed their medical residencies and/or fellowships in the U.S. on exchange visitor (“J”) status. If such a physician agrees to work in a medically-underserved area for a minimum of three years, he may be sponsored by a State Department of Health, and be exempt from the requirement that he return to his country for two years.
The new bill would extend the benefits of the Conrad program to physicians who completed their residencies/fellowship in H-1B status as well.
An H-1B physician who agrees to work in a medically-underserved area for at least three years would be exempt from
- The six-year maximum duration for H-1B status;
- The EB-2 visa cap (which currently make physicians born in India wait over five years to obtain permanent residence.
In addition, the law would exempt physicians who have received J waivers and have worked in H-1B status for a minimum of three years from the EB-2 visa cap.
The waiver of EB-2 visa cap would apply to J physicians who completed their three years of service in a medically- underserved area prior to the enactment of the law.
Finally, under certain circumstances, the number of waivers that a state could sponsor would be allowed to exceed the limit of 30 under present law. Given the current physician shortage in many rural and inner city areas, this increased flexibility is essential to insure that thousands of patients in these areas receive proper medical treatment.
“All too often, families in rural areas…are forced to travel great distances for routine health care. That is unacceptable. We need doctors where their patients are – in the communities,” stated Senator Conrad. “This expanded version of the Conrad State 30 program will bring more doctors to more communities, allowing patients access to vital services right in their hometown.”
We link to the complete text of this bill from both our “Immigration Legislation” page at
and from our “Immigration for Physicians” page at
We also link to a series of videos explaining in simple terms how a foreign-born physician may immigrate to the U.S. from our “YouTube” page at
Mr. Patel was a very frustrated man when he sought our assistance.
He had established a 2005 EB-3 priority date through a previous employer. His present employer, a start-up company, had obtained the approval of a PERM application for him in 2007, and had submitted an I-140 on his behalf. Simultaneously, Mr. Patel and his family filed Immigration Form I-485.
Unfortunately, Mr. Patel did not extend his H-1B status after filing his application for INS adjustment of status. We always advise our clients to maintain their non-immigrant status while their adjustment applications are pending. His previous attorney did not advise him to do so. Unless a person maintains his nonimmigrant status, USCIS takes the position that if the Immigration Form I-485 is denied, he cannot re-file the application. Instead, he must leave the U.S. See
In 2008, USCIS issued a request for evidence (RFE) seeking documents from Mr. Patel’s employer proving that they had the ability to pay his wage since his 2005 priority date. This was despite the fact that his present employer was not even in existence in 2005!
Mr. Patel’s previous attorney responded to the RFE by providing all the financial documents from the date of incorporation of the employer in 2007, but the I-140 was denied by the USCIS. Worse yet, the USCIS denied the entire family’s I-485 applications. Suddenly, all of the Patels were out of status and subject to removal from the U.S.
We immediately obtained Mr. Patel’s file from his previous attorney. After reviewing his file, we learned that the RFE response did not contain any explanation of the basis upon which the attorney was seeking to retain the 2005 priority date. Neither did he cite the relevant law to prove USCIS was in error in seeking documents to establish the employer’s ability to pay the wages since 2005.
Time was short, and the only option we had was to file a motion to reconsider the USCIS decision, and we had to do this within one week!
In our motion, we pointed out USCIS’ error. We explained in great detail why the USCIS should only consider the ability to pay the wage from the date of filing the present PERM application in 2007. Then we explained why, under the regulations, the USCIS should grant Mr. Patel a 2005 priority date. Not wanting to take any chances, we resubmitted the financial documents to prove the petitioner’s ability to pay the wage from June 2007.
Within 15 days, our motion to reopen was granted and the I- 140 was approved. Also, the family’s I-485s were reopened placing them back in legal status.
Mr. Patel and his family were both grateful and relieved.
With immigration law, the devil is always in the details. Attorneys should explain everything in detail to the government, and not just assume that the examiner is aware of all relevant laws and regulations.
To read more of our Immigration Success Stories, see
This month’s Immigration Trivia Quiz is entitled “Immigrant Chefs and Their Cuisine”. See
http://www.shusterman.com/chefquizjh.html (Link no longer operational.)
The first person to correctly answer our quiz (and supply their biographical information) wins a free legal consultation with me before the end of May.
Many of the questions we received this month concern the disastrous May Visa Bulletin which states that EB-3 visas for professionals, skilled, and unskilled workers are “unavailable”.
Here is how the State Department explains the future of the EB-3 numbers:
“The cut-off dates for the Employment Third and Third preference “Other Worker” categories were held and then retrogressed in an effort to bring demand within the average monthly usage targets and the overall annual numerical limits. Despite these efforts, the amount of demand received from Citizenship and Immigration Services Offices for adjustment of status cases with priority dates that were significantly earlier than the established cut- off dates remained extremely high. As a result, these annual limits have been reached and both categories have become ‘Unavailable.’
Visa availability in these categories will resume in October, the first month of the new fiscal year.”
As we stated in our blog:
“On April 8, the State Department published the May 2009 Visa Bulletin online. Gone is the much-lamented six-year wait for green cards for professionals and skilled workers who are being sponsored by their employers. Instead, green cards are “unavailable” in this category for the next 5 months. This is the earliest that the category has become unavailable in my 33 years of practicing immigration law. Persons who have played by the rules and have pending applications for adjustment of status now have no idea when, or even if, they will qualify for permanent residence in the U.S. … Immigrants who followed the complex immigration rules will get the following message: Never mind that you paid your taxes and never got so much as a parking ticket, that you were active in your church and that your children were straight A students, that you always maintained your legal status in the U.S. For you, the American Dream is over.”
The American Dream may not only be over for thousands of talented scientists and engineers born in other countries, but since we no longer seem to have room for the world’s best and brightest, for our country as well.
Craig Barrett, the Chairman of Intel, puts it in stark terms. “We are watching the decline and fall of the United States as an economic power.”
This may not be an exaggeration. Andrew Grove, the co- founder of Intel is an immigrant. Ditto for Sergey Brin (Google), Jerry Yang (Yahoo), Vinod Khosla and Andreas von Bechtolsheim (Sun Microsystems). I could go on…
Another troubling aspect of the disappearance of EB-3 visas is prolonged family separation.
For our clients who have obtained permanent residence as registered nurses, the dream is not over, but the unavailability of EB-3 immigrant visas means that they will be forced to remain separated from their spouses and children for many years while they continue to treat American patients in our understaffed hospitals.
Consider Teresa who came to the U.S. from the Philippines in 2006, and quickly passed her RN licensure exams. She got her green card in 2007, and her I-824 for her husband and children was approved almost two years ago.
Ever more tragic is the case of Mercy who became a permanent resident in the summer of 2005. Because of the retrogression, it is unlikely that her husband and her 11-year-old son will be able to join her in the U.S. until she becomes a U.S. citizen a couple of years from now.
I believe that Congress should change the law to allow U.S. employers access to global talent and to prevent prolonged separation of immigrant families.
Do you have immigration questions of general interest to our readers? Send them to
If your question is neither short nor general, please schedule a 30-minute legal consultation with me at
* Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)
The Immigration Service (USCIS) lists its processing times for immigration petitions and applications on their website.
Most immigration applications and petitions must be submitted to one of the following USCIS Service Centers: (1) Laguna Niguel, California; (2) Lincoln, Nebraska; (3) Mesquite, Texas; and (4) St. Albans, Vermont and (5) the National Benefits Center in Missouri.
These service centers periodically issue lists of their processing times for various types of petitions and applications. We link to the latest list issued by each service center.
Warning: Processing times may appear faster on the official lists than they are in reality.
To see how fast (or slow) your service center is processing a particular type of petition or application, see our Government Processing Times Page at
Processing times at USCIS local offices may be accessed at
Administrative appeals of most types of petitions and waivers denied by the USCIS are adjudicated by the agency’s Administrative Appeals Office (AAO) in Washington, DC.
The AAO’s most recent published processing times (May 1, 2009) may be found at
* Department of State
The State Department website contains a “Visa Wait List” page which permits readers to choose a particular U.S. consular post and learn how long it takes the post to process various types of temporary, nonimmigrant visas. See
All immigration attorneys are not created equal.
Hiring an experienced, competent attorney versus hiring an attorney who is either inexperienced or incompetent can be the difference between you and your family becoming permanent residents and eventually U.S. citizens, and having your applications denied and being placed in removal proceedings.
But how do you determine who is experienced and competent, and who is not? Don’t expect a lawyer to tell you that he is either inexperienced or incompetent!
A good place for you to start is by watching our free video entitled “Ten Rules for Selecting an Immigration Attorney” at
Wouldn’t it be great if the State Bar Associations certified experts in the immigration law?
Guess what, four states do just that. They are:
* North Carolina
Should you hire a Certified Specialist in Immigration Law? Don’t take my word for it. Take a look at the brochure written by the California State Bar at
The brochure starts with the following advice: “The more complicated your situation, the more reason to consider hiring an attorney who specializes in Immigration and Nationality Law and who is committed through certification to keeping up his or her proficiency through continual practice and continuing education.”
If you are hiring an immigration attorney, do yourself a favor and choose a Certified Specialist.
For three years, I served on the Immigration and Naturalization Legal Advisory Committee (INLAC) of the State Bar of California. INLAC members write and grade the exam which attorneys have to pass in order to become Certified Specialists. Is the exam difficult? Suffice to say that only three attorneys in the State of California became Certified Immigration Specialists last year although there are hundreds, maybe, thousands of attorneys in California who claim to be “experts” in immigration law.
A few weeks ago, on March 16, I received a letter which stated:
“The State Bar of California Board of Legal Specialization’s established recognition program for certified specialists who have been continuously certified by the Board in a particular specialty area for twenty years is pleased to add Carl Michael Shusterman, Board Certified Specialist in Immigration & Nationality, to this distinguished list.”
How time passes when you are having fun! California started certifying attorneys in immigration law in 1988, and to me, it seems like yesterday!
We link to this letter from
and to my 20-year certificate at
Our April 2009 Immigration Trivia Quiz was entitled “Nursery Rhymes: There’s More Behind Them Than Just Song!” See
http://www.shusterman.com/kidssongssr.html (Link no longer operational.)
Below is the message that I received from the quiz winner:
Dear Mr. Shusterman,
My name is: Chezna Boswell, I am an immigrant, and I live in Ohio. I am a Certified Pharmacy Technician. I have been a subscriber for about 2-3 years now, and I use this site as a valuable resource for information.
Here are my answers:
A-1. Name: Rain Rain go Away
2. Country of Origin: England
3. Period in history the song was created to personify: During this period of English history there was constant rivalry between Spain and England culminating in the launch of the Spanish Armada in 1588.
4. Why do these lyrics signify this moment? Only 65 Spanish galleons and just 10,000 men returned to Spain. The attempt failed, not only because of the swift nature of the smaller English ships but also by the stormy weather which scattered the Armada fleet.
B-1. Hansel and Gretel
2. Country of Origin: Germany
3. Period in history the song was created to personify: “Hansel and Gretel” is one of several European tales in which children outwit an ogre into whose hands they have fallen. Their plight is involuntary, unlike the hero of the ‘Jack’ tales who actively seeks monsters and ogres in order to obtain loot, engage in blood sports, or win enduring glory. The Grimm brothers learned “Hansel and Gretel” in Cassel from the young girl Dortchen Wild, who years later would become Wilhelm Grimm’s wife. Many scholars attribute the story’s success to the children’s opera written by Humperdinck in 1893.
4. Why do these lyrics signify this moment? The tale from the Brothers Grimm was meant to be a pleasant fable for middle- class consumers of the 19th century; the original however was probably an admonishment of the hardships of medieval life. Because of episodes of famine, war, plague and other reasons, abandoning children in the woods to die or fend for themselves was not unknown, in particular during the crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Many critics have posited that the tale likely stemmed from historical instances of abandonment caused by famine.
C-1. Jack be Nimble
2. Country of Origin: England
3. Period in history the song was created to personify: origin for the Jack be nimble rhyme is the connection to Black Jack, an English pirate who was notorious for escaping from the authorities in the late 16th century hence Jack be nimble.
4. Why do these lyrics signify this moment? They could be associated with the old tradition and sport of ‘candle leaping’ which used to be practiced at some English fairs. The tradition of candle-leaping originated from an old game of jumping over fires. This dangerous game was banned and replaced by the far less dangerous sport of Candle leaping. In Wendover, there were lace-making schools (a good excuse for using children as slave labour).
Certified Specialist in Immigration Law, State Bar of California
Former U.S. Immigration & Naturalization Service Trial Attorney (1976-82)
Board of Governors, American Immigration Lawyers Association (1988-97)
Phone: (213) 623-4592 Fax: (213) 623-3720
Law Offices of Carl Shusterman, 600 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 1550
Los Angeles, California 90017
“47 percent of all U.S. science and engineering workers with doctorates are immigrants as were 67 percent of the additions to the U.S. science and engineering work force between 1995 and 2006.”
- Vivek Wadhwa, MBA Senior Research Associate Harvard Law School
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May 3, 2009